Or, Urquhart’s folly.
Here’s a challenge: write a sentence with two never-before-used words in it, and see if the Oxford English Dictionary ever adds both of them to its long list of English words.
In “Acrasial Philogamy – Ghost Hapaxes in OED”, I documented some words that are included as headwords in the OED on the basis of only one piece of usage evidence, which piece of evidence also included another word (or more) which OED didn’t choose to make into a headword. The question each one of these raises is, why this not-otherwise-attested word and not that? Sometimes the answer is transparent, other times not.
But what about cases where this and that word are both included? That is, where one quotation is the only textual evidence for more than one OED headword? These might be called double hapaxes, or double nonce usages.
As you might expect, there are vanishingly few of these in OED2. I count just forty-eight (or 96 of the 2.5M quotations in the dictionary), although I haven’t applied any fuzzy matching (so quotes with small differences in spelling or transcription errors, or from variant editions will all fail to match). I’ve put them into a table, below. Many of the hapax pairs are parallel affix constructions, such as tauntless-vauntless (Hopkins), brotherize-sisterize (Delany), uncestued-unbeamed (Southey), metleyship-weyleyship (Burghley). Others are simply affixes of hapaxes, such as flexity-inflexity (Brougham). Some are technical terms, such as echidnine-viperine (Hulme).
Then there’s Sir Thomas Urquhart’s The Jewel (1652) [subtitle ΕΚΣΚΥΒΑΛΑΥΡΟΝ- Greek for “gold from turds” (!) ] which has three phrases each containing two hapaxes: affabulatory-apologal, disobstetricate-enixibility, and tacturiency-visuriency. Urquhart is additionally responsible for a further 147 single hapaxes. At times one feels sympathy for the antineologians: clearly this guy must have been a torture to read.
Or you can turn pain to pleasure: over the last two years the blog “Six Degrees of Thomas Urquhart” has been rating Urquhart’s words according to logofascination (an Urquhartesque coinage) and usefulness. Usefulness is admittedly a matter of opinion. Flagitious I can abide once in a blue moon – T. S. Eliot wrote to his mother that ‘Apathy is more flagitious than abuse’. Incornifistibulating, not so much.
In the Cambridge History of English and American Literature, George Saintsbury remarked on Urquhart’s pompous self-portraits, and related these to his writing style, “where the coxcomb, though he remains, shows quite a different kind of coxcombry, and blends it with a pedantry which is gigantesque and almost incredible.” John Willcock’s introduction to The Jewel, in his 1899 edition of Urquhart’s works, puts the matter of Urquhart’s neologizing this way: “The style of our author is seen at its worst in the peroration to The Jewel, in which he apologizes for the comparative simplicity, if not baldness, by which, in the opinion of some, it might be thought to be characterised. “I could truly,” [Urquhart] says:
…have enlarged this discourse with a choicer variety of phrase, and made it overflow the field of the reader’s understanding, with an inundation of greater eloquence; and that one way, tropologetically, by metonymical, ironical, metaphorical, and synecdochical instruments of elocution, in all their several kinds, artificially affected, according to the nature of the subject, with emphatical expressions in things of great concernment, with catachrestical in matters of meaner moment; attended on each side respectively with an epiplectick and exegetick modification; with hyperbolical, either epitatically or hypocoristically, as the purpose required to be elated or extenuated, with qualifying metaphors, and accompanied by apostrophes; and lastly, with allegories of all sorts, whether apologal, affabulatory, parabolary, ænigmatick, or paræmial. And on the other part, schematologetically adorning the proposed theam with the most especial and chief flowers of the garden of rhetorick, and omitting no figure either of diction or sentence, that might contribute to the ear’s enchantment, or perswasion of the hearer. I could have introduced, in case of obscurity, synonymal, exargastick, and palilogetick elucidations; for sweetness of phrase, antimetathetick commutations of epithets; for the vehement excitation of a matter, exclamation in the front, and epiphonemas in the reer. I could have used, for the promptlier stirring up of passion, apostrophal and prosopopœiel diversions; and, for the appeasing and settling of them, some epanorthotick revocations, and aposiopetick restraines. I could have inserted dialogismes, displaying their interrogatory part with communicatively pysmatick and sustentative flourishes; or proleptically, with the refutative schemes of anticipation and subjection, and that part which concerns the responsory, with the figures of permission and concession. Speeches extending a matter beyond what it is, auxetically, digressively, transitiously, by ratiocination, ætiology, circumlocution, and other wayes, I could have made use of; as likewise with words diminishing the worth of a thing, tapinotically, periphrastically, by rejection, translation, and other meanes, I could have served myself.”
Oh, good God. Writers: Omit needless neologisms! Lexicographers: Omit needless hapaxes!
Perhaps all hapaxes or nonce usages have, by their nature, filled a need, however limited it might have been. You to judge which of the following phrases by themselves justify the creation of two OED headwords:
|13..||E.E. Allit. P.||The rayn rueled adoun, ridlande thikke, Of felle flaunkes of fyr.||ridel, v.1, ruel, v.|
|A. 1300||E.E. Psalter||Mi merci and in-fleing mine, Mi helper and leser mine.||leeser, 2, infleeing, vbl. sb.|
|C. 1300||Old Age vii. in E.E.P.||I snurpe, i snobbe, i sneipe on snovte.||snurp, v., sneipe, v.|
|A. 1325||Names Hare in Rel. Ant.||The scot, the deubert, The gras-bitere, the goibert.||goibert, deubert|
|C. 1325||E.E. Allit. P.||Amaraun&ygh. &. amaffised stones.||amaffised, amaraunt|
|C. 1325||E.E. Allit. P.||Til he blunt in a blok as brod as a halle.||blok, blund, v.|
|A. 1400-50||Alexander||Sum was smeth smaragdyns &. o&th.ire small gemmes, And new nychometis nemellus endentid.||nemel, nychomet|
|1440||Promp. Parv.||Aggruggynge, or a-greuynge. Aggravacio, aggravamen.||aggrieving, vbl. sb., aggrudging, vbl. sb.|
|C. 1485||Digby Myst.||He hathe made me clene and delectary, the wyche was to synne a subiectary.||delectary, a., subjectary|
|1486||Bk. St. Albans, Her.||Adam the begynnyng of man kynde was as a stokke vnsprayde and vnfloreshed.||unflourished, ppl. a., unsprayed, ppl. a.1|
|1508||Reg. Privy Seal Scotl.||For keping of his heretage..unsparpalit and unanalyt in favouris of his sone.||unanalied, ppl. a., unsparpled, ppl. a.|
|1521||Balade in Bradshaw's St. Werburge||With termes exquised and sence retoriall.||exquised, a., rhetorial, a.|
|1570||Billingsley, Euclid||To proue that an octohedron geuen, is tredecuple sesquialter to a trilater equilater pyramis inscribed in it.||tredecuple, a., trilater, a.|
|1579||Spenser, Sheph. Cal.||For they bene like foule wagmoires ouergrast.||overgrassed, pa. pple., wagmoire|
|1579||Hake, Newes out of Powles||Stent, Stockard, Stampine, Tanterueale, and Wigeon of the best.||stampine, tanterueale|
|1579||J. Jones, Preserv. Bodie &. Soule||Not regarding the words of..the Chaldean Prophetes, or rather Mathematists and Gymnosophistals.||gymnosophistal, mathematist|
|A. 1548||Hall, Chron., Edw. IV||Some had..the guissettes..droped &. gutted with red.||guissette, gutted, a.|
|1587||Ld. Burghley, 12th Rep. Hist. MSS. Comm.||[Concerning the office of the] weyleyship and metleyship [in Penrith].||metleyship, weyleyship|
|1590||Greene, Orl. Fur.||Stately Argosies, Caluars, and Magars, hulkes of burden great.||calvar, magar 1|
|1611||Florio||Inazzurrare, to inazure, to inblew.||inazure, v., inblue, v.|
|1611||Florio||Inscuffiare, to inquoife, to inhood.||inhood, v., inquoif, v.|
|1611||Florio||Infiascare, to inflagon, to inflaske.||inflagon, v., inflask, v.|
|1611||Florio||Incamisciare, to inshirt, to insmocke.||inshirt, v., insmock, v.|
|1616||B. Jonson, Masque of Queenes||Rouncy is ouer, Robble is vnder, A flash of light and a clap of thunder.||robble, rouncy 2|
|1629||T. Adams, Serm. Heb.||Oppressors, Inclosers, Depopulators, Deportators, Depravators.||deportator, depravator|
|1641||Milton, Reform.||He that will mould a modern Bishop into a primitive, must yeeld him to be..undiocest, unrevenu'd, unlorded.||undiocesed, a., unrevenued, ppl. a.|
|1647||Ward, Simp. Cobler||Whatsoever is duable or triable, is fryable.||duable, a., triable, a.2|
|1647||Ward, Simp. Cobler||Souldiers use to weare other marklets or notadoes in time of battell.||marklet, notado|
|1652||Gaule, Magastrom.||Against all Merlinicall arrogators, prorogators, derogators.||arrogator, prorogator|
|1652||Urquhart, Jewel||Allegories of all sorts, whether apologal, affabulatory, parabolary, etc.||affabulatory, a., apologal, a.|
|1652||Urquhart, Jewel||With parturiencie for greater births, if a malevolent time disobstetricate not their enixibility.||disobstetricate, v., enixibility|
|1652||Urquhart, Jewel||The visuriency of either, by ushering the tacturiency of both, made the attrectation of both consequent to the inspection of either.||tacturiency, visuriency|
|1657||Reeve, God's Plea||It doth grieve me to see how great things are deampled and dismagned amongst you.||de-ample, v., dismagn, v.|
|1697||Evelyn, Numism.||Several sorts of Stuffs, Calandring and Chambletings.||calandring, camleting|
|1797||Mrs. Delany, Life &. Corr.||It is happy for D., since she is so brotherised and sisterised, that she can make their strange and unnatural behaviour easy to her.||brotherize, v., sisterize, v.|
|1797||Brougham, Phil. Trans.||We may, therefore, say that the rays of light differ in degree of refrangity, reflexity, and flexity, comprehending inflexity and deflexity.||flexity, inflexity|
|1802||Canning, Let. in Diaries &. Corr. Ld. Malmesbury||I commit the paper to your discretion. If signable people should fall in your way, or if unsignable,..use it.||signable, a., unsignable, a.|
|1826||Kirby & Sp., Entomol.||If terms be thought necessary to designate the two intire segments into which the alitrunk is resolvable, the first may be the meditrunk (meditruncus), and the other the potrunk (potruncus).||meditrunk, potrunk|
|1839||Bailey, Festus||His is the vice-royed, vouched-safe, sway of God.||vouched-safe, ppl. a., viceroyed, a.|
|A. 1843||Southey, Comm.-Pl. Bk.||Without his wig he is Jove without his thunder. Venus uncestused, Ph&oe.bus unbeamed.||uncestused, a., unbeamed, ppl. a.|
|1849||Lytton, Caxtons||Is there no mission in thy native land, O planeticose and exallotriote spirit?||exallotriote, a., planeticose, a.|
|1855||Milman, Lat. Chr.||The most quiet, uninsulting, unexasperating satire.||unexasperating, ppl. a., uninsulting, ppl. a.|
|1861||Hulme, Moquin-Tandon||Prince Lucien Bonaparte has shown that the poison of the Viper consists essentially of a principle to which he has given the name Echidnine or Viperine.||echidnine, viperine, sb.1|
|1865||Dickens, Mut. Fr.||Bibless and apronless.||apronless, a., bibless, a.|
|C. 1879||G. M. Hopkins, Poems||Tongue true, vaunt- and tauntless.||tauntless, a., vauntless, a.|
|1890||Nature||He has..confounded ontogenal steps of growth with phylogenal phases of plan.||ontogenal, a., phylogenal, a.|
|1922||T. Hardy, Late Lyrics||I went where my friend had lectioned The prophets in high declaim.||declaim, sb., lection, v.|